A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete mechanical movements. The shaft or spindle of a stepper motor rotates in discrete step increments when electrical command pulses are applied to it in the proper sequence.
Stepper Motor Connection with arduino:
Stepper Motor Control using Arduino is a simple project where a Bipolar Stepper Motor is controlled using Arduino UNO. Stepper Motor is a type of brush less DC Motor that converts electrical pulses into distinct mechanical movements i.e. the shaft of a stepper motor rotates in discrete steps. When a computer controls these steps, we can get precise position and speed control.
- Arduino UNO
- L293D Motor Driver IC
- Bipolar Stepper Motor
- Power Supply (suitable for your stepper motor)
- Breadboard (Prototyping Board)
- Connecting Wires
Circuit Diagram of Stepper Motor Control using Arduino:
Working of the Project:
The stepper motor used in this project is a Bipolar PMH (Permanent Magnet Hybrid) type Stepper Motor. Since it is a bipolar motor, there are only 4 wires corresponding to the end terminals of two coils. These 4 wires are connected to the output pins of the L293D Motor Driver IC.
In order to drive the stepper motor, we will be using a technique called “Half Stepping”. The motor used in this project has 200 step count. With one phase stepper excitation i.e. energising only one phase at a time, we can achieve the normal 200 step rotation with least power consumption.
- Stepper motors are commonly used in robots.
- It also used in CNC Machines, industrial automation, small appliances like printers etc.
- Due to their high accuracy and holding torque, stepper motors are used where precision positioning is essential.